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We just published our new work on global fish stocks and overfishing

Schijns, R., Froese, R., Hutchings, J. A., Pauly, D., & Raicevich, S. (2021). Five centuries of cod catches in Eastern Canada. ICES Journal o

  • Schijns, R., Froese, R., Hutchings, J. A., Pauly, D., & Raicevich, S. (2021). Five centuries of cod catches in Eastern Canada. ICES Journal of Marine Science.

  • Thurstan, R. H., Brockington, S., & Roberts, C. M. (2010). The effects of 118 years of industrial fishing on UK bottom trawl fisheriesNature communications1(1), 1-6.

  • Roberts, C. M. The Unnatural History of the Sea (Island Press, 2007).

  • This data is sourced from the Sea Around Us database published by Pauly, Zeller and Palomares, available at: http://www.seaaroundus.org/.

    This project relies on multiple sources but primarily the FishStat database published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This is available here: http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en.

  • Golden, C. D., Koehn, J. Z., Shepon, A., Passarelli, S., Free, C. M., Viana, D. F., … & Thilsted, S. H. (2021). Aquatic foods to nourish nations. Nature, 1-6.

  • By ‘consumption’ here we mean the amount that’s available for consumers at the retail level. Actual consumption will be a little lower due to consumer food waste.

  • FAO. 2020. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome.

  • FAO. 2020. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome.

  • Duarte, C. M., Agusti, S., Barbier, E., Britten, G. L., Castilla, J. C., Gattuso, J. P., … & Worm, B. (2020). Rebuilding marine life. Nature, 580(7801), 39-51.

  • Worm, B., Barbier, E. B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J. E., Folke, C., Halpern, B. S., … & Watson, R. (2006). Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science, 314(5800), 787-790.

  • Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J. K., Branch, T. A., Collie, J. S., Costello, C., … & Zeller, D. (2009). Rebuilding global fisheries. Science, 325(5940), 578-585.

  • Hilborn, R., Amoroso, R. O., Anderson, C. M., Baum, J. K., Branch, T. A., Costello, C., … & Ye, Y. (2020). Effective fisheries management instrumental in improving fish stock status. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(4), 2218-2224.

  • Many have reported that Boris Worm’s 2006 paper has since been retracted. This is not true. But their subsequent work has put forward very different conclusions from the original claims.

  • Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J. K., Branch, T. A., Collie, J. S., Costello, C., … & Zeller, D. (2009). Rebuilding global fisheries. Science, 325(5940), 578-585.

  • RAM Legacy Stock Assessment Database. 2021. Version 4.495-assessment-only. Released 2021-05-27. ARetrieved from DOI:10.5281/zenodo.4824192.

  • Melnychuk, M. C., Peterson, E., Elliott, M., & Hilborn, R. (2017). Fisheries management impacts on target species status. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(1), 178-183.

  • Ricard, D., Minto, C., Jensen, O.P. and Baum, J.K. (2012) Evaluating the knowledge base and status of commercially exploited marine species with the RAM Legacy Stock Assessment Database. Fish and Fisheries 13 (4) 380-398. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00435.x

  • Gephart, J. A., Henriksson, P. J., Parker, R. W., Shepon, A., Gorospe, K. D., Bergman, K., … & Tyedmers, P. (2021). Environmental performance of blue foods. Nature.

  • [This means we cannot directly compare these results to our comparisons presented here, which do include transport, packaging and retail].

  • Our comparison on greenhouse gas emissions includes both wild-caught seafood, and seafood from fish farms. Land use, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, and freshwater use are only shown for farmed seafood – wild-caught fish do not really create these environmental impacts. Farmed fish do require land, and can produce nutrient pollution from the production of feed to grow them.

  • This is the median impact of chicken raised in the US or Europe. Again, this is based on emissions and impacts up to the farmgate. Post-farmgate impacts are not included.

  • Hilborn, R., Amoroso, R. O., Anderson, C. M., Baum, J. K., Branch, T. A., Costello, C., … & Ye, Y. (2020). Effective fisheries management instrumental in improving fish stock status. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(4), 2218-2224.

  • Sala, E., Mayorga, J., Bradley, D., Cabral, R. B., Atwood, T. B., Auber, A., … & Lubchenco, J. (2021). Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate. Nature, 592(7854), 397-402.

  • Costello, M. J., Cheung, A., & De Hauwere, N. (2010). Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world’s seas, oceans, and countries. Environmental science & technology, 44(23), 8821-8828.

  • This 1998 paper, for example, compares trawling to Amazonian forest clearcutting.
    Watling, L., & Norse, E. A. (1998). Disturbance of the seabed by mobile fishing gear: a comparison to forest clearcutting. Conservation biology, 12(6), 1180-1197.

  • Hilborn, R., & Hilborn, U. (2019). Ocean Recovery: A sustainable future for global fisheries?. Oxford University Press.

  • Amoroso, R. O., Pitcher, C. R., Rijnsdorp, A. D., McConnaughey, R. A., Parma, A. M., Suuronen, P., … & Jennings, S. (2018). Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(43), E10275-E10282.

  • The start and end year of this monitoring varied, but was around the year 2010 across each region.

  • Hiddink, J. G., Jennings, S., Sciberras, M., Szostek, C. L., Hughes, K. M., Ellis, N., … & Kaiser, M. J. (2017). Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(31), 8301-8306.

  • ​​Hiddink, J. G., Jennings, S., & Kaiser, M. J. (2006). Indicators of the ecological impact of bottom-trawl disturbance on seabed communities. Ecosystems, 9(7), 1190-1199.

  • In the 1960s, Portugal was catching around 1 million tonnes each year. Now this figure is around 100,000. Just 10% of 1960s levels.

  • Data sourced from: Naylor, R. L., Hardy, R. W., Buschmann, A. H., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Klinger, D. H., … & Troell, M. (2021). A 20-year retrospective review of global aquaculture. Nature, 591(7851), 551-563.

  • This data is sourced fromPauly D., Zeller D., Palomares M.L.D. (Editors), 2020. Sea Around Us Concepts, Design and Data (seaaroundus.org).

    The original source is FishStat, the database maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

  • Note that feed from fishmeal and oils is the combination of feed used for aquaculture and land-based livestock. So, it’s not just feed for fish farms. Over this period, the share going towards aquaculture increased. The share of global fishmeal used by the aquaculture sector increased from 33% in 2000 to 69% in 2016, while the share of global fish oil used by aquaculture rose from 55% to 75%.

  • Naylor, R. L., Hardy, R. W., Buschmann, A. H., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Klinger, D. H., … & Troell, M. (2021). A 20-year retrospective review of global aquaculture. Nature, 591(7851), 551-563.

    Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J. H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M. C., Clay, J., … & Troell, M. (2000). Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405(6790), 1017-1024.

  • Again, we should be careful to not mistake this as the total feed conversion ratio (FCR). Fish farms are fed from other sources. This ratio tells us about fish inputs, which is only one part of their total diet.

  • Zeller, D., Cashion, T., Palomares, M., & Pauly, D. (2018). Global marine fisheries discards: A synthesis of reconstructed data. Fish and Fisheries, 19(1), 30-39.

  • Pérez Roda, M.A. (ed.), Gilman, E., Huntington, T., Kennelly, S.J., Suuronen, P., Chaloupka, M. and Medley, P. 2019. A third assessment of global marine fisheries discards. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 633. Rome, FAO. 78 pp.

  • Pérez Roda, M.A. (ed.), Gilman, E., Huntington, T., Kennelly, S.J., Suuronen, P., Chaloupka, M. and Medley, P. 2019. A third assessment of global marine fisheries discards. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 633. Rome, FAO. 78 pp.

  • Madhu V. R. (2018). A review of trawl selectivity studies carried out along Indian coast. Fishery Technology, 55: 1–18.

    Wienbeck, H., Herrmann, B., Moderhak, W. & Stepputtis, D. 2011. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Fisheries Research, 109(1): 80–88.

    Valdemarsen, J.W. & Suuronen, P. 2003. Modifying fishing gear to achieve ecosystem objectives. In M. Sinclair & G. Valdimarsson, eds. Responsible fisheries in the marine ecosystem, pp. 321–341. Wallingford, CABI.

  • Enever, R., Revill, A.S. & Grant, A. 2009. Discarding in the North Sea and on the historical efficacy of gear-based technical measures in reducing discards. Fisheries Research, 95(1): 40–46.

    Hall, S.J. & Mainprize, B.M. 2005. Managing bycatch and discards: how much progress are we making and how can we do better? Fish and Fisheries, 6(2): 134–155.

  • Zeller, D., Cashion, T., Palomares, M., & Pauly, D. (2018). Global marine fisheries discards: A synthesis of reconstructed data. Fish and Fisheries, 19(1), 30-39.

  • UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2021), Protected Planet: The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) and World Database on Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (WD-OECM) [Online], September 2021, Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net.

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