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We just published our new work on Coral Reefs

Morrison, T. H., Hughes, T. P., Adger, W. N., Brown, K., Barnett, J., & Lemos, M. C. (2019). Save reefs to rescue all ecosystems. Nature.Burke, L.

  • Morrison, T. H., Hughes, T. P., Adger, W. N., Brown, K., Barnett, J., & Lemos, M. C. (2019). Save reefs to rescue all ecosystems. Nature.

  • Burke, L., Reytar, K., Spalding, M., & Perry, A. (2011). Reefs at risk revisited. World Resources Institute.

  • Morrison, T. H., Hughes, T. P., Adger, W. N., Brown, K., Barnett, J., & Lemos, M. C. (2019). Save reefs to rescue all ecosystems. Nature.

  • Dietzel, A., Bode, M., Connolly, S. R., & Hughes, T. P. (2021). The population sizes and global extinction risk of reef-building coral species at biogeographic scales. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1-7.

  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Poloczanska, E. S., Skirving, W., & Dove, S. (2017). Coral reef ecosystems under climate change and ocean acidification. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 158.

  • They also get small amounts of energy through particle feeding from the ocean floor.

  • Spalding, M. D., & Brown, B. E. (2015). Warm-water coral reefs and climate change. Science, 350(6262), 769-771.

  • Source: NASA Millennium Coral Reef Mapping Project

  • Dietzel, A., Bode, M., Connolly, S. R., & Hughes, T. P. (2021). The population sizes and global extinction risk of reef-building coral species at biogeographic scalesNature Ecology & Evolution, 1-7.

  • Barnosky, A. D., Matzke, N., Tomiya, S., Wogan, G. O., Swartz, B., Quental, T. B., … & Ferrer, E. A. (2011). Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived?. Nature, 471(7336), 51-57.

  • Veron, J. E. (2008). Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: biological constraints on geological dilemmas. Coral Reefs, 27(3), 459-472.

  • Cramer, K. L., Jackson, J. B., Donovan, M. K., Greenstein, B. J., Korpanty, C. A., Cook, G. M., & Pandolfi, J. M. (2020). Widespread loss of Caribbean acroporid corals was underway before coral bleaching and disease outbreaks. Science Advances, 6(17), eaax9395.

  • Gardner, T. A., Côté, I. M., Gill, J. A., Grant, A., & Watkinson, A. R. (2003). Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science, 301(5635), 958-960.

  • Hughes, T. P., Graham, N. A., Jackson, J. B., Mumby, P. J., & Steneck, R. S. (2010). Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(11), 633-642.

  • This was measured as the average cover over the period from 1996 to 2006.

    Hughes, T. P., Graham, N. A., Jackson, J. B., Mumby, P. J., & Steneck, R. S. (2010). Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(11), 633-642.

  • Côté, I. M., Gill, J. A., Gardner, T. A., & Watkinson, A. R. (2005). Measuring coral reef decline through meta-analyses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360(1454), 385-395

  • Lessios, H. A., Robertson, D. R., & Cubit, J. D. (1984). Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the Caribbean. Science, 226(4672), 335-337.

  • Spalding, M. D., & Brown, B. E. (2015). Warm-water coral reefs and climate change. Science, 350(6262), 769-771.

  • This is based on data published by the Met Office Hadley Centre. Available here.

  • Heron, S. F., Maynard, J. A., Van Hooidonk, R., & Eakin, C. M. (2016). Warming trends and bleaching stress of the world’s coral reefs 1985–2012. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1-14.

  • Heron, S. F., Maynard, J. A., Van Hooidonk, R., & Eakin, C. M. (2016). Warming trends and bleaching stress of the world’s coral reefs 1985–2012. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1-14.

  • Hughes, T. P., Anderson, K. D., Connolly, S. R., Heron, S. F., Kerry, J. T., Lough, J. M., … & Wilson, S. K. (2018). Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science, 359(6371), 80-83.

  • This data captures sea surface temperature anomalies averaged across 1670 1° latitude–by–1° longitude boxes containing coral reefs at latitudes between 31°N and 31°S.

    Hughes, T. P., Anderson, K. D., Connolly, S. R., Heron, S. F., Kerry, J. T., Lough, J. M., … & Wilson, S. K. (2018). Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science, 359(6371), 80-83.

  • Hughes, T. P., Kerry, J. T., Baird, A. H., Connolly, S. R., Dietzel, A., Eakin, C. M., … & Torda, G. (2018). Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages. Nature, 556(7702), 492-496.

  • Eakin, C. M., Morgan, J. A., Heron, S. F., Smith, T. B., Liu, G., Alvarez-Filip, L., … & Yusuf, Y. (2010). Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. PloS one, 5(11), e13969.

    Liu, G., Heron, S. F., Eakin, C. M., Muller-Karger, F. E., Vega-Rodriguez, M., Guild, L. S., … & Lynds, S. (2014). Reef-scale thermal stress monitoring of coral ecosystems: new 5-km global products from NOAA Coral Reef Watch. Remote Sensing, 6(11), 11579-11606.

  • Hughes, T. P., Anderson, K. D., Connolly, S. R., Heron, S. F., Kerry, J. T., Lough, J. M., … & Wilson, S. K. (2018). Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science, 359(6371), 80-83.

  • Spalding, M. D., & Brown, B. E. (2015). Warm-water coral reefs and climate change. Science, 350(6262), 769-771.

    Hughes, T. P., Kerry, J. T., Álvarez-Noriega, M., Álvarez-Romero, J. G., Anderson, K. D., Baird, A. H., … & Wilson, S. K. (2017). Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature, 543(7645), 373-377.

  • This is also referred to as ‘phenotypic plasticity’.

  • Dill, D. B., Hall, F. G., & Edwards, H. T. (1938). Changes in composition of sweat during acclimatization to heat. American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, 123(2), 412-419.

  • Hoey, A. S., Howells, E., Johansen, J. L., Hobbs, J. P. A., Messmer, V., McCowan, D. M., … & Pratchett, M. S. (2016). Recent advances in understanding the effects of climate change on coral reefs. Diversity, 8(2), 12.

  • Palumbi, S. R., Barshis, D. J., Traylor-Knowles, N., & Bay, R. A. (2014). Mechanisms of reef coral resistance to future climate change. Science, 344(6186), 895-898.

  • Dixon, G. B., Davies, S. W., Aglyamova, G. V., Meyer, E., Bay, L. K., & Matz, M. V. (2015). Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes. Science, 348(6242), 1460-1462.

  • Babcock, R. C. (1991). Comparative demography of three species of scleractinian corals using age‐and size‐dependent classifications. Ecological Monographs, 61(3), 225-244.

  • Krueger, T., Becker, S., Pontasch, S., Dove, S., Hoegh‐Guldberg, O., Leggat, W., … & Davy, S. K. (2014). Antioxidant plasticity and thermal sensitivity in four types of Symbiodinium sp. Journal of Phycology, 50(6), 1035-1047.

    Tchernov, D., Gorbunov, M. Y., De Vargas, C., Yadav, S. N., Milligan, A. J., Häggblom, M., & Falkowski, P. G. (2004). Membrane lipids of symbiotic algae are diagnostic of sensitivity to thermal bleaching in corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(37), 13531-13535.

    McGinty, E. S., Pieczonka, J., & Mydlarz, L. D. (2012). Variations in reactive oxygen release and antioxidant activity in multiple Symbiodinium types in response to elevated temperature. Microbial Ecology, 64(4), 1000-1007.

  • Abrego, D., Ulstrup, K. E., Willis, B. L., & van Oppen, M. J. (2008). Species–specific interactions between algal endosymbionts and coral hosts define their bleaching response to heat and light stress. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1648), 2273-2282.

  • LaJeunesse, T. C., Wham, D. C., Pettay, D. T., Parkinson, J. E., Keshavmurthy, S., & Chen, C. A. (2014). Ecologically differentiated stress-tolerant endosymbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) Clade D are different species. Phycologia, 53(4), 305-319.

  • Maynard, J. A., Anthony, K. R. N., Marshall, P. A., & Masiri, I. (2008). Major bleaching events can lead to increased thermal tolerance in corals. Marine Biology, 155(2), 173-182.

    Berkelmans, R. (2009). Bleaching and mortality thresholds: how much is too much?. Coral bleaching, 103-119.

    Guest, J. R., Baird, A. H., Maynard, J. A., Muttaqin, E., Edwards, A. J., Campbell, S. J., … & Chou, L. M. (2012). Contrasting patterns of coral bleaching susceptibility in 2010 suggest an adaptive response to thermal stress. PloS one, 7(3), e33353.

    Pratchett, M. S., McCowan, D., Maynard, J. A., & Heron, S. F. (2013). Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia. PLoS one, 8(7), e70443.

    McClanahan, T. R., & Muthiga, N. A. (2014). Community change and evidence for variable warm-water temperature adaptation of corals in Northern Male Atoll, Maldives. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 80(1-2), 107-113.

  • Hughes, T. P., Kerry, J. T., Álvarez-Noriega, M., Álvarez-Romero, J. G., Anderson, K. D., Baird, A. H., … & Wilson, S. K. (2017). Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature, 543(7645), 373-377.

  • Hughes, T. P., Anderson, K. D., Connolly, S. R., Heron, S. F., Kerry, J. T., Lough, J. M., … & Wilson, S. K. (2018). Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science, 359(6371), 80-83.

  • Riegl, B. M., Purkis, S. J., Al-Cibahy, A. S., Abdel-Moati, M. A., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2011). Present limits to heat-adaptability in corals and population-level responses to climate extremes. PloS one, 6(9), e24802.

  • Pratchett, M. S., McCowan, D., Maynard, J. A., & Heron, S. F. (2013). Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia. PLoS one, 8(7), e70443.

  • Pandolfi, J. M., Connolly, S. R., Marshall, D. J., & Cohen, A. L. (2011). Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification. Science, 333(6041), 418-422.

  • Yee, S. H., Santavy, D. L., & Barron, M. G. (2008). Comparing environmental influences on coral bleaching across and within species using clustered binomial regression. Ecological Modelling, 218(1-2), 162-174.

  • Pratchett, M. S., McWilliam, M. J., & Riegl, B. (2020). Contrasting shifts in coral assemblages with increasing disturbances. Coral Reefs, 39(3), 783-793.

  • Mora, C., Graham, N. A., & Nyström, M. (2016). Ecological limitations to the resilience of coral reefs. Coral Reefs, 35(4), 1271-1280.

  • Global Carbon Project (2019) Carbon budget and trends 2019. [www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget]

  • Global Carbon Project (2019) Carbon budget and trends 2019. [www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget]

  • Hughes, T. P., Barnes, M. L., Bellwood, D. R., Cinner, J. E., Cumming, G. S., Jackson, J. B., … & Scheffer, M. (2017). Coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature, 546(7656), 82-90.

  • Chan, N. C., & Connolly, S. R. (2013). Sensitivity of coral calcification to ocean acidification: a meta‐analysis. Global Change Biology, 19(1), 282-290.

  • Hughes, T. P., Barnes, M. L., Bellwood, D. R., Cinner, J. E., Cumming, G. S., Jackson, J. B., … & Scheffer, M. (2017). Coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature, 546(7656), 82-90.

  • Rhein, M. et al. in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Stocker, T. F. et al.) Ch. 3, 255–315 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2013).